Current status + progress
In 2015, seven out of ten people used a safely managed drinking water service
Universal access to safe drinking water is a fundamental need and human right. Securing access for all would go a long way in reducing illness and death, especially among children. Since 2000, 1.4 billion people have gained access to basic drinking water services, such as piped water into the home or a protected dug well. In 2015, 844 million people still lack a basic water service and among them almost 159 million people still collected drinking water directly from rivers, lakes and other surface water sources. The data reveal pronounced disparities, with the poorest and those living in rural areas least likely to use a basic service.
“Safely managed” water services represent an ambitious new rung on the ladder used to track progress on drinking water. In 2015, 5.2 billion people used safely managed services, i.e. accessible on premises, available when needed and free from contamination. A further 1.3 billion used a ‘basic’ water service, i.e. improved sources within 30 minutes per round trip to collect water. Over a quarter of a billion (258 million) used a ‘limited’ service where water collection from an improved source exceeded 30 minutes. In most countries the burden of water collection continues to fall mainly to women and girls.
Notes on the data
WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation
Since 1990, WHO and UNICEF have tracked progress on global water and sanitation goals through the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP). The JMP monitors trends in coverage; helps build national monitoring capacity in developing countries; develops and harmonises questionnaires, indicators and definitions to ensure comparability of data over time and among countries; and informs policymakers of the status of the water supply and sanitation sector through annual publications. The JMP draws guidance from a technical advisory group of leading experts in water supply, sanitation and hygiene, and from institutions involved in data collection and sector monitoring. Further information about the JMP and its methodology can be found at the JMP website.
The JMP estimates for handwashing are based on information collected in household surveys such as Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Household surveys are usually conducted by national institutes of statistics, carried out by trained national staff who collect information on a wide range of health and living conditions through face-to-face interviews. Nationally owned and independently verifiable, these data sources provide national governments with a periodic update of the status and progress with respect to handwashing. Increasingly household survey data allow for assessing disparities in access by marginalized populations and geographic areas.
Definition of handwashing facilities with soap and water
The presence of soap and water at a designated place is used a proxy for handwashing behaviours. Households are considered to have access if enumerators observe a place for handwashing and both water and soap are available.