Current status + progress
The main drivers of the HIV epidemic are influenced by a wide range of gender inequalities. Early and forced marriage, gender-based violence, unequal access to information, including sexual health knowledge, and a lack of negotiating power and economic autonomy are among the factors that place women and adolescent girls at increased risk of HIV infection as well as circumscribe their responses to being infected. At the same time, masculine norms that stigmatise homosexuality and promote promiscuity and substance abuse increase the risk of infection among men and boys.
The world has made great strides in combating HIV/AIDs among children
Globally, progress is being made to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV – but some regions lag behind
Curbing HIV infections of girls and adolescents is particularly important in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. In 2018, it was estimated that 1.3 million pregnant women globally were living with HIV – approximately 92 per cent of whom reside in sub-Saharan Africa. Due in part to greater HIV testing coverage, 82 per cent of pregnant women living with HIV were receiving effective antiretroviral medicines for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) – but with significant regional disparities that range from 92 per cent in Eastern and Southern Africa to 53 per cent in Middle East and North Africa.
Additional external resources
UNAIDS, Reaching out to men and boys – Addressing a blind spot in the response to HIV, Geneva 2017