The SDGs are universal in scope, and their call to leave no one behind puts the world’s most vulnerable and marginalized people – including children – at the top of the agenda. But two years since world leaders committed to achieving the SDGs, are we on track to achieve the goals for children? Do we even have enough information to know?
- The 2030 Agenda includes 17 Global Goals addressing the social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development.
- Attached to the Goals are 169 concrete targets measured by 232 specific indicators.
35 of these indicators are directly related to children.
- Most countries have insufficient data to assess whether they are on track to achieve the SDG targets for children.
- Available data show an alarming number of countries needing to speed up progress to reach global targets.
- Within countries, particular groups of children are at greater risk of being left behind such as children from poorer households, those living in rural areas,
or – often – adolescent girls.
- UNICEF, as the global leader of data for children, is the custodian for 7 global SDG indicators and co-custodian for a further 10 indicators.
UNICEF briefing notes on SDG global indicators related to children
This series of briefing notes for UNICEF regional and country offices is on SDG indicators related to children. The first note summarises the development and implementation of the SDG global indicator framework and UNICEF’s role in supporting member states to collect, analyse and report on child-related SDG indicators at national and global levels. Briefing notes 2-15 provide detailed information on child-related global SDG indicators for which UNICEF has been identified as custodian, co-custodian, or supporting agency for the purposes of global reporting. Additional briefing notes may be developed in the future covering other global indicators related to children as well as cross-cutting issues related to SDG monitoring
Progress for Every Child in the SDG Era
The first comprehensive assessment on progress towards achieving the global SDG targets for children, Progress for Every Child in the SDG Era assesses the world’s performance on the SDGs to date, focusing on 44 indicators that directly concern 2030’s most important constituency: children. The analysis reveals that most countries have insufficient data to assess whether they are on track to achieve each of the SDG targets, and where data are available, an astounding number of countries need to speed up progress.
UNICEF’S commitment to data for children is guided by the fact that the SDGs impact every aspect of a child’s well-being.
UNICEF’s work is structured around 5 overarching areas of well-being for every child which are grounded in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. These five areas are that:
- Every child survives and thrives
- Every child learns
- Every child is protected from violence and exploitation
- Every child lives in a safe and clean environment
- Every child has a fair chance in life
This human rights based approach pursues a vision of realizing the rights of every child, especially the most disadvantaged and responds to the call to “leave no child behind”, so that the rights of every child, everywhere, will be fulfilled. The table below lists the SDG indicators that have been identified by UNICEF, based on these broad areas, as most relevant for monitoring the situation of children under each SDG goal.
Child related SDG indicators
1.1.1 Proportion of population below the international poverty line, by sex, age, employment status and geographical location (urban/rural)
1.2.1 Proportion of population living below the national poverty line, by sex and age
1.2.2 Proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions
1.3.1 Proportion of population covered by social protection floors/systems, by sex, and distinguishing children, unemployed persons, older persons, persons with disabilities, pregnant women, newborns, work injury victims, and the poor and the vulnerable
1.4.1 Proportion of population living in households with access to basic services
2.2.1 Prevalence of stunting (height for age <-2 standard deviation from the median of the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age
2.2.2 Prevalence of malnutrition (weight for height >+2 or <-2 standard deviation from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age, by type (wasting and overweight)
3.1.1 Maternal mortality ratio
3.1.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel
3.2.1 Under-5 mortality rate
3.2.2 Neonatal mortality rate
3.3.1 Number of new HIV infections per 1,000 uninfected population, by sex, age and key populations
3.3.2 Tuberculosis incidence per 1,000 population
3.3.3 Malaria incidence per 1,000 population
3.4.2 Suicide mortality rate
3.6.1 Death rate due to road traffic injuries
3.7.1 Proportion of women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who have their need for family planning satisfied with modern methods
3.7.2 Adolescent birth rate (aged 10–14 years; aged 15–19 years) per 1,000 women in that age group
3.8.1 Coverage of essential health services (defined as the average coverage of essential services based on tracer interventions that include reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health, infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases and service capacity and access, among the general and the most disadvantaged population)
3.9.1 Mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution
3.9.2 Mortality rate attributed to unsafe water, unsafe sanitation and lack of hygiene (exposure to unsafe WASH services)
4.1.1 Proportion of children and young people: (a) in grades 2/3; (b) at the end of primary; and (c) at the end of lower secondary achieving at least a minimum proficiency level in (i) reading and (ii) mathematics, by sex
4.2.1 Proportion of children under 5 years of age who are developmentally on track in health, learning and psychosocial well-being, by sex
4.2.2 Participation rate in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age), by sex
4.5.1 Parity indices (female/male, rural/urban, bottom/top wealth quintile and others such as disability status, indigenous peoples and conflict-affected as data become available)
4.6.1 Percentage of population in a given age group achieving at least a fixed level of proficiency in functional (a) literacy and (b) numeracy skills, by sex
4.a.1 Proportion of schools with access to: (a) electricity; (b) the Internet for pedagogical purposes; (c) computers for pedagogical purposes; (d) adapted infrastructure and materials for students with disabilities; (e) basic drinking water; (f) single-sex basic sanitation facilities; and (g) basic handwashing facilities (as per the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All (WASH) indicator definitions)
5.2.1 Proportion of ever-partnered women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to physical, sexual or psychological violence by a current or former intimate partner, in the previous 12 months, by form of violence and by age
5.2.2 Proportion of women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner, in the previous 12 months, by age and place of occurrence
5.3.1 Proportion of women aged 20–24 years who were married or in a union before age 15 and before age 18
5.3.2 Proportion of girls and women aged 15–49 years who have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting, by age
5.4.1 Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic and care work, by sex, age and location
5.6.1 Proportion of women aged 15–49 years who make their own informed decisions regarding sexual relations, contraceptive use and reproductive health care
6.1.1 Proportion of population using safely managed drinking water services
6.2.1 Proportion of the population using (a) safely managed sanitation services and (b) a hand-washing facility with soap and water
7.1.2 Proportion of population with primary reliance on clean fuels and technology
8.7.1 Proportion and number of children aged 5–17 years engaged in child labour, by sex and age
10.1.1 Growth rates of household expenditure or income per capita among the bottom 40 per cent of the population and the total population
11.1.1 Proportion of urban population living in slums, informal settlements or inadequate housing
12.8.1 Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development (including climate change education) are mainstreamed in (a) national education policies (b) curricula (c) teacher education and (d) student assessment
13.1.1 Number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies
13.1.2 Number of deaths, missing and persons affected by disaster per 100,000 people
16.1.1 Number of victims of intentional homicide per 100,000 population, by sex and age
16.1.2 Conflict-related deaths per 100,000 population, by sex, age and cause
16.2.1 Proportion of children aged 1–17 years who experienced any physical punishment and/or psychological aggression by caregivers in the past month
16.2.3 Proportion of young women and men aged 18–29 years who experienced sexual violence by age 18
16.9.1 Proportion of children under 5 years of age whose births have been registered with a civil authority, by age
17.18.1 Proportion of sustainable development indicators produced at the national level with full disaggregation when relevant to the target, in accordance with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics
17.19.2 Proportion of countries that a) have conducted at least one Population and Housing Census in the last ten years, and b) have achieved 100 per cent birth registration and 80 per cent death registration