Gendered Influences on Adolescent and Mental Health in Low-income and Middle-income Countries

Nov 27, 2017

An estimated 67 000 adolescents die each year from self-harm, and far more—an estimated 10% of all adolescents—have intentionally harmed themselves. Suicide consistently ranks among the leading causes of death for older adolescent girls and boys globally, and depressive disorders, anxiety, behavioural problems, and self-harm are among the greatest contributors to young people’s burden of disease. Academics, practitioners, and advocates increasingly recognise the importance of mental health to the overall wellbeing of adolescents, and the complex linkages between gender and mental health.

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First Foods: Improving Diets in Early Childhood

Oct 30, 2017

This special issue of Maternal and Child Nutrition includes the invited papers from presentations made during a global meeting in Mumbai, India, on the theme: First Foods: A Global Meeting to Accelerate Progress on Complementary Feeding for Young Children (November 17–18, 2015). The Conference provided a platform that aimed to (a) synthesize the biological and implementation science on complementary feeding; (b) review the practice and experience in improving access to nutritious complementary foods and good complementary feeding practices in children aged 6–23 months; and (c) consolidate a strong evidence base that can inform the development of strategies and approaches to improve complementary feeding that are fit to context. The papers in this special issue provide the most up to date thinking on a variety of topics related to young child feeding discussed at the 2015 meeting.

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Measuring child functioning: the UNICEF/Washington Group module

Oct 5, 2017

The work of the UNICEF/Washington Group collaboration provides a standard way to identify, at the population level, the prevalence of functional difficulties among children aged 2 to 17 years, and to use this information to monitor participation (for example, access to education) in accordance to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. These data may help countries and governments plan and develop better practices to improve the living conditions and wellbeing of children with disabilities around the world.

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Understanding and Tackling the Gendered Drivers of Poor Adolescent Mental Health

Jun 1, 2017

This paper was written to stimulate discussion about the influence of gender and gender norms on mental health in adolescence. It was developed in advance of an expert consultation that the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) jointly convened in April, 2017, and benefited from contributions made at that consultation.

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Estimating the number of children in formal alternative care: challenges and results

Jun 1, 2017

The purpose of this paper is to provide a snapshot of the availability and coverage of data on children living in residential and foster care from some 142 countries covering more than 80 per cent of the world’s children. Utilizing these country-level figures, it is estimated that approximately 2.7 million children between the ages of 0 and 17 years could be living in institutional care worldwide. Where possible, the article also presents regional estimates of the number of children living in residential and foster care.

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Differential effects of young maternal age on child growth

Nov 17, 2016

The association of early maternal birthing age with smaller children has been widely observed. However, it is unclear if this is due to confounding by factors such as socioeconomic status, or the age at which child growth restriction first occurs. This paper examines the effect of early maternal birthing age on the first-born child’s height-for-age in a sample of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

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Field testing a draft version of the UNICEF/Washington Group module on child functioning and disability

Oct 1, 2016

Global child disability data are generally non-comparable, comprising different tools, methodologies and disability definitions. UNICEF and The Washington Group on Disability Statistics have developed a new tool on child functioning and disability to address this need. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of the new module, and to present an independent field test of the draft module in two contrasting settings.

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Diarrhea management in children under five in sub-Saharan Africa: does the source of care matter?

Aug 19, 2016

Many children’s lives can be saved with correct management of childhood diarrhea. Too many children are not receiving adequate care for diarrhea in high-burden sub-Saharan African countries, even among those seen in health facilities. Redoubling efforts to increase careseeking and improve quality of care for childhood diarrhea in both health facilities and at community level is an urgent priority.

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Risk factors associated with the practice of child marriage among Roma girls in Serbia

Feb 3, 2016

Relatively little research on the issue of child marriage has been conducted in European countries where the overall prevalence of child marriage is relatively low, but relatively high among marginalized ethnic subgroups. The purpose of this study is to assess the risk factors associated with the practice of child marriage among females living in Roma settlements in Serbia and among the general population and to explore the inter-relationship
between child marriage and school enrollment decisions.

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Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect

Jan 29, 2016

With a substantial development of research and findings for breastfeeding over the past three decades, we are now able to expand on the health benefits for both women and children across the globe. The paper describes past and current global trends of breastfeeding, its short and long-term health consequences for the mother and child, the impact of investment in breastfeeding, and the determinants of breastfeeding and the effectiveness of promotion interventions.

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Navigating the landscape of child disability measurement: A review of available data collection instruments

Dec 8, 2015

The purpose of this paper is to describe the varying scope and content of data collection instruments on child disability and to provide a historical snapshot of the rates of reported disability among children. A total of 716 data sources were identified, corresponding to 198 countries covering more than 95% of the world’s children. The findings reveal a lack of consistent definitions and measures of disability, which contribute to major challenges in producing reliable and comparable statistics.

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Global, regional, and national levels and trends in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015, with scenario-based projections to 2030: a systematic analysis by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation

Sep 8, 2015

Despite substantial progress in reducing child mortality, concerted efforts remain necessary to avoid preventable under-5 deaths in the coming years and to accelerate progress in improving child survival further. Urgent actions are needed most in the regions and countries with high under-5 mortality rates, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia.

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Home-based record prevalence among children aged 12-23 months from 180 demographic and health surveys

Apr 14, 2015

There is currently a re-focus at the global level on the importance of the home-based record within vaccination service delivery as an important information resource but there are few reports of ever and current home-based record prevalence across countries. We considered all Demographic and Health Surveys (starting with DHS round 3) conducted between 1993 and 2013 for which a final dataset was available in the public domain at the time of the analysis.

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Results from a survey of national immunization programmes on home-based vaccination record practices in 2013

Feb 10, 2015

During January 2014, WHO and the United Nations Children’s Fund sent a one-page questionnaire to 195 countries to obtain information on HBRs including type of record used, number of records printed, whether records were provided free-of-charge or required by schools, whether there was a stock-out and the duration of any stock-outs that occurred, as well as the total expenditure for printing HBRs during 2013.

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UNICEF Report: enormous progress in child survival but greater focus on newborns urgently needed

Dec 1, 2014

This commentary summarizes the levels and trends in child mortality as well as the coverage and quality of key maternal and newborn care from pregnancy through childbirth and the postnatal period as discussed in the UNICEF report Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed Progress Report 2014.

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Global Routine Vaccination Coverage, 2013

Nov 20, 2014

In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization to ensure that all children have access to routinely recommended vaccines. Since then, global coverage with the four core vaccines (Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine [for protection against tuberculosis], diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine [DTP], polio vaccine, and measles vaccine) has increased from <5% to ≥84%, and additional vaccines have been added to the recommended schedule. Coverage with the third dose of DTP vaccine (DTP3) by age 12 months is a key indicator of immunization program performance. Estimated global DTP3 coverage has remained at 83%-84% since 2009, with estimated 2013 coverage at 84%. Global coverage estimates for the second routine dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2) are reported for the first time in 2013; globalcoverage was 35% by the end of the second year of life and 53% when including older age groups. Improvements in equity of access and use ofimmunization services will help ensure that all children are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases.

Harris JB, Gacic-Dobo M, Eggers R, Brown DW, Sodha SV. Global Routine Vaccination Coverage, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(46):1055-1058.

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Avoiding the Will O’ the Wisp: Challenges in Measuring High Levels of Immunization Coverage with Precision

Aug 14, 2014

When the Expanded Programme on Immunization was launched in 1974, less than 5% of the world’s children were immunized during their first year of life against polio, diphtheria, tuberculosis, pertussis, measles and tetanus.

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A Summary of Global Immunization Coverage through 2013

Aug 14, 2014

This paper summarizes the 2013 revision (completed July 2014) of the WHO and UNICEF estimates of national immunization coverage (WUENIC).

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Global Monitoring of Water Supply and Sanitation: History, Methods and Future Challenges

Aug 11, 2014

International monitoring of drinking water and sanitation shapes awareness of countries’ needs and informs policy, implementation and research efforts to extend and improve services. The Millennium Development Goals established global targets for drinking water and sanitation access; progress towards these targets, facilitated by international monitoring, has contributed to reducing the global disease burden and increasing quality of life.

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Epidemiology of HIV and AIDS Among Adolescents: Current Status, Inequities, and Data Gaps

Jul 21, 2014

The JAIDS Supplement is a key source of evidence that will inform collective efforts towards ending the adolescent AIDS epidemic. The series presents a collection of reviews on adolescents analyzing current evidence and experience from programmes to highlight how to improve HIV-specific outcomes.

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Child Mortality Estimation 2013: An Overview of Updates in Estimation Methods by the United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation

Jul 8, 2014

In September 2013, the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) published an update of the estimates of the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) and under-five deaths for all countries. Compared to the UN IGME estimates published in 2012, updated data inputs and a new method for estimating the U5MR were used.

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Every Newborn: progress, priorities, and potential beyond survival

Jul 8, 2014

In this Series paper, we review trends since the 2005 Lancet Series on Neonatal Survival to inform acceleration of progress for newborn health post-2015. On the basis of multicountry analyses and multi-stakeholder consultations, we propose national targets for 2035 of no more than 10 stillbirths per 1000 total births, and no more than 10 neonatal deaths per 1000 livebirths, compatible with the under-5 mortality targets of no more than 20 per 1000 livebirths.

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Data, children’s rights, and the new development agenda

May 20, 2014

2015 marks the 25th anniversary of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the culmination of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As people look to the future of human wellbeing, data will play an increasingly important part in identifying inequities and in informing and evaluating interventions so these are responsive and accountable to the world’s 2.2 billion children, especially those so far excluded from the benefits of development.

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Home-based child vaccination records – A reflection on form

Apr 1, 2014

Home-based child vaccination records play an important role in documenting immunization services received by children. We report some of the results of a review of home-based vaccination records from 55 countries.

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Home-based child vaccination records – A reflection on form

Apr 1, 2014

Home-based child vaccination records play an important role in documenting immunization services received by children. We report some of the results of a review of home-based vaccination records from 55 countries.

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Immunization country profiles

Dec 31, 2013

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Maternal and Child Undernutrition and Overweight in Low-income and Middle-income Countries

Jun 6, 2013

Maternal and child malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries encompasses both undernutrition and a growing problem with overweight and obesity.

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